Wycliffe Bible

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John Wycliffe's Translation

This page describes preprocessing results for the text of John Wycliffe's Translation obtained from The Wesley Center Online. The same text is also available from WikiSource. For historical context, see Wycliffe's Bible.


Both Tyndale and Wycliffe texts from the Wesley Center Online were the work of Sergej A. Fedosov of the Slavic Bible website.

Some problems with Sergej's work is that he didn't transcribe the Middle English vowels with a macron that represented a n, or m – so the text has a lot of hi meaning him, the meaning them, wet meaning went etc., where these are not spellings that the printer used. He also transcribes the þe, þt and such thorn letters as ye, yt instead of the, that, etc., but transcribes the ampersand (&) as and.

He also capitalised some words where this was inappropriate. e.g. The first word of Leviticus 1, "Forsothe" was transcribed as "FORSOTHE".


The downloaded ZIP file contained 76 books comprising the 66 protocanonical books and 10 deuterocanonical books. It also included a text file providing a key to the booknames. See below.

Genesis - gen.txt
Exodus - exo.txt
Leviticus - lev.txt
Numbers - num.txt
Deuteronomy - deu.txt
Joshua - jos.txt
Judges - jdg.txt
Ruth - rut.txt
1 Kings - 1sa.txt
2 Kings - 2sa.txt
3 Kings - 1ki.txt
4 Kings - 2ki.txt
1 Paralipomenon - 1ch.txt
2 Paralipomenon - 2ch.txt
1 Esdras - ezr.txt
2 Esdras - neh.txt
3 Esdras - 2ez.txt
Tobit - tob.txt
Judith - jdt.txt
Esther - est.txt
Job - job.txt
Psalms - psa.txt
Proverbs - pro.txt
Ecclesiastes - ecc.txt
Songes of Songes - sol.txt
Wisdom - wis.txt
Syrach - syr.txt
Isaiah - isa.txt
Jeremiah - jer.txt
Lamentations - lam.txt
Preier of Jeremye - epj.txt
Baruk - bar.txt
Ezechiel - eze.txt
Daniel - dan.txt
Osee - hos.txt
Joel - joe.txt
Amos - amo.txt
Abdias - oba.txt
Jonas - jon.txt
Mychee - mic.txt
Naum - nah.txt
Abacuk - hab.txt
Sofonye - zep.txt
Aggey - hag.txt
Sacarie - zec.txt
Malachie - mal.txt
1 Machabeis - 1ma.txt
2 Machabeis - 2ma.txt
Matheu - mat.txt
Mark - mar.txt
Luke - luk.txt
John - joh.txt
Dedis of Apostlis - act.txt
Romaynes - rom.txt
1 Corinthis - 1co.txt
2 Corinthis - 2co.txt
Galathies - gal.txt
Effesies - eph.txt
Filipensis - phi.txt
Colosencis - col.txt
1 Thessalonycensis - 1th.txt
2 Thessalonycensis - 2th.txt
1 Tymothe - 1ti.txt
2 Tymothe - 2ti.txt
Tite - tit.txt
Filemon - phm.txt
Ebrews - heb.txt
James - jam.txt
1 Petre - 1pe.txt
2 Petre - 2pe.txt
1 Joon - 1jo.txt
2 Joon - 2jo.txt
3 Joon - 3jo.txt
Judas - jud.txt
Apocalips - rev.txt
Laodicensis - lao.txt

The Biblical text files were last edited on 2002-05-24. I have not attempted to compare the full text with the derived copy at WikiSource.


I prefixed the filenames for the Biblical text files with the usual book numbers, with an underscore to avoid mis-sorting filenames that already began with a numeral.

Deuterocanonical books

To include the 10 deuterocanonical books in a SWORD module would require using av11n.

Here is a list of these books extracted from the original text file of booknames.

3 Esdras - 2ez.txt
Tobit - tob.txt
Judith - jdt.txt
Wisdom - wis.txt
Syrach - syr.txt
Preier of Jeremye - epj.txt
Baruk - bar.txt
1 Machabeis - 1ma.txt
2 Machabeis - 2ma.txt
Laodicensis - lao.txt

These books appear in the following order

  • 3 Esdras, Tobit & Judith are after 2 Esdras.
  • Wisdom & Syrach are after Songes of Songes.
  • Preier of Jeremye & Baruk are after Lamentations.
  • 1 & 2 Machabeis are after Malachie
  • Laodicensis is after Apocalips

These are the numbers that I assigned for these at the file renaming.


Conversion to USFM

I made a simple TextPipe filter to convert the files to rudimentary USFM, complete with ID and Header tags, plus the following remarks.

\rem John Wycliffe's Translation of the Bible
\rem converted to rudimentary USFM format by David Haslam
\rem from the text obtained from The Wesley Center Online
\rem http://wesley.nnu.edu/fileadmin/imported_site/biblical_studies/wycliffe/

The ID and Header for Genesis looks like this:

\id GEN
\h Genesis

Versification issues

I used Dirk's GoBibleCreator USFM Preprocessor utility to detect versification issues.


The results were as follows: (82 issues in total, some of which are inter-related due to being immediately adjacent)

Versification Issues
Filename	Chapter	Verse
01_GEN.usfm	3	21	
01_GEN.usfm	8	8	
02_EXO.usfm	29	43	
03_LEV.usfm	22	17	
04_NUM.usfm	2	2	
04_NUM.usfm	28	30	
04_NUM.usfm	33	23	
07_JDG.usfm	4	6	
07_JDG.usfm	4	16	
09_1SA.usfm	4	3	
09_1SA.usfm	16	17	
09_1SA.usfm	17	4	
12_2KI.usfm	21	1	
12_2KI.usfm	21	22	
14_2CH.usfm	26	12	
15_EZR.usfm	10	38	
16_NEH.usfm	9	30	
16_NEH.usfm	9	4	
16_NEH.usfm	10	1	
16_NEH.usfm	10	39	
16_NEH.usfm	11	9	
18_JOB.usfm	6	7	
18_JOB.usfm	8	9	
18_JOB.usfm	37	1	
18_JOB.usfm	37	34	
19_PSA.usfm	9	22	
21_ECC.usfm	4	18	
21_ECC.usfm	5	1	
21_ECC.usfm	6	12	
21_ECC.usfm	7	1	
21_ECC.usfm	7	31	
21_ECC.usfm	8	1	
21_ECC.usfm	10	1	
21_ECC.usfm	10	19	
22_SOL.usfm	1	17	
22_SOL.usfm	2	1	
22_SOL.usfm	6	6	
24_JER.usfm	11	9	
24_JER.usfm	30	25	
24_JER.usfm	31	1	
25_LAM.usfm	3	60	
26_EZE.usfm	39	1	
26_EZE.usfm	39	24	
26_EZE.usfm	43	15	
27_DAN.usfm	4	1	
27_DAN.usfm	4	101	
27_DAN.usfm	13	66	
27_DAN.usfm	14	1	
28_HOS.usfm	12	1	
28_HOS.usfm	12	13	
33_MIC.usfm	4	14	
33_MIC.usfm	5	1	
39_MAL.usfm	3	1	
39_MAL.usfm	3	18	
40_MAT.usfm	10	32	
40_MAT.usfm	20	27	
40_MAT.usfm	22	6	
40_MAT.usfm	24	51	
42_LUK.usfm	7	42	
48_GAL.usfm	3	20	
54_1TI.usfm	4	17	
54_1TI.usfm	5	1	
66_REV.usfm	12	1	
66_REV.usfm	12	20	
68_JDT.usfm	1	11	
68_JDT.usfm	8	5	
70_WIS.usfm	7	31	
70_WIS.usfm	8	1	
70_WIS.usfm	10	22	
70_WIS.usfm	11	1	
71_SYR.usfm	27	1	
71_SYR.usfm	27	29	
72_BAR.usfm	2	36	
72_BAR.usfm	3	1	
72_BAR.usfm	4	3	
72_BAR.usfm	4	20	
77_1MA.usfm	11	4	
78_2MA.usfm	2	27	
81_2EZ.usfm	1	38	
81_2EZ.usfm	3	1	
81_2EZ.usfm	3	32	
81_2EZ.usfm	7	16	

I have cross-checked these issues against the WikiSource edition. All but one of them were not corrected.



Let's examine the first such issue as an example:

\v 20 And Adam clepide the name of his wijf Eue, for sche was the moder of alle men lyuynge. And the Lord God made cootis of skynnys to Adam and Eue his wijf, and clothide hem; and seide, Lo...!
\v 22 Adam is maad as oon of vs, and knowith good and yuel; now therfore se ye, lest perauenture he putte his hond, and take of the tre of lijf, and ete, and lyue with outen ende.
\v 23 And the Lord God sente hym out of paradijs of likyng, that he schulde worche the erthe, of which he was takun.
\v 24 And God castide out Adam, and settide bifore paradis of lykyng cherubyn, and a swerd of flawme and turnynge aboute to kepe the weie of the tre of lijf.

Clearly there is no marker for \v 21.

Verse 20 requires splitting into two verses in order to match the v11n for the KJV. Thus it would then become:

\v 20 And Adam clepide the name of his wijf Eue, for sche was the moder of alle men lyuynge.
\v 21 And the Lord God made cootis of skynnys to Adam and Eue his wijf, and clothide hem; and seide, Lo!

In Wikisource, this change has not been made, even though some issues have been fixed in other books.

Many of the remaining 81 v11n issues were similar.

3 Kings

Although not detected automatically, it should be noted that two verse in 3 Kings each contain a numbered note that starts on a new line.

Chapter 11

\v 5 But Salomon worschipide Astartes 
1, the goddesse of Sidoneis, and Chamos, the god of Moabitis, and Moloch, the idol of Amonytis; 

Chapter 15

\v 23 Sotheli the residue of alle wordis of Asa, and of al his strengthe, and alle thingis whiche he dide, and the citees whiche he bildide, whether these ben not writun in the book of wordis of daies of kingis of Juda? Netheles Asa hadde ache in feet 
11, in the tyme of his eelde. 

1 Esdras

The versification of 1 Esdras 10 is peculiar in the list of names section at verses 32-44. It's impossible to make one simple change that would make this line up with how it reads in the KJV. I therefore inserted an empty verse 38 containing the following note: [the versification is offset in this list].


Esther includes the Greek additions, but with ordinary verse numbers. Esther thus has 16 chapters instead of the usual 10 in the KJV.


Job chapter 1 had a malformed chapter heading (CAP. I.) in the original text file. This was corrected by my TextPipe filter.


Psalm 9 had a malformed heading (PALM 9) in the original text file. This was corrected by my TextPipe filter.

The numbering of the Psalms follows the Greek pattern. See Composition and numbering section of the article on Wikipedia.

Psalm 10 is appended to Psalm 9 as a single Psalm, yet the verse numbers were restarted at 1. The Wikisource edition corrected this oddity.

I have included the original verse numbers (corresponding to Psalm 10) in braces.


The versification for Ecclesiates 5 was offset by minus one. I have included the original verse numbers in braces.

Songes of Songes

The versification for Songes of Songes 6 was offset by minus one. I have included the original verse numbers in braces.


Daniel includes the Greek additions, but with ordinary verse numbers. Daniel thus has 14 chapters instead of the usual 12 in the KJV.

2 Machabeis

The versification for 2 Machabeis 2:26-33 was offset by minus one. I have included the original verse numbers in braces.

Edited USFM files

A copy of the USFM files was made. Those with versification issues have been edited until the preprocessor utility reported none.

Go Bible

A Wycliffe Go Bible application has been made from the edited USFM files. This has been tested successfully using mpowerplayer.